good thing for keeping files in microsoft word. had to dig through my college shit from 3 years ago to find this.
Ok, after receiving various questions in e-mail or through instant messagers, I'm going to try to make a “how to” post. The mod can sticky this if he wants. The reasoning behind this post is to get accurate information out to you, the reader, so that information is not asked repetitively.
Four years ago, there were literally only a handful of people building 16vt. I know three years ago I knew jack! By bugging those original pioneers (hardcore vw, lugnuts, oversteer, compressedcaddy, and other members from the hardcore vw site) with countless questions and by doing my own research, I too was able to partake in the fun of a turbo car.
Keep in mind, I’m an enthusiast too, not a pro. My own car was built on a college student budget, with no family support. So if I can build this on meager paychecks while paying for rent, insurance, classes, etc, I know you can too.
Motor: The theory behind the aba/16v method, in my opinion, is the ease and cost efficiency of using the ABA block as opposed to vw's original 16v block. By using the ABA block, you can use more OEM parts (no stacked head gaskets or custom pistons). However, if you have a perfectly fine 1.8 or 2.0L 16v motor, no need to swap out blocks on purpose. Those can be used equally as well. A separate thread will be made on that method later.
Fuel injection: As you know, the 1.8l or 2.0l vw motors came equipped w/ a form of cis; either cis-e or Cis motronic. Both of these systems are capable in n/a format. However, it has been my experience that boosting these systems is crude at best. Granted, an additional injector controller can be used to supply fuel. However, it is so much easier to run intercooler piping w/o having a cis-e air box. In addition, by removing the OEM mechanical fuel systems and converting to an electronic fuel system, you open up your tuning abilities. Granted, cis was used on the old Indy turbo cars, as well as Porsche turbo cars. But we don’t have the resources an Indy team does. I'm not saying that cis cannot be done, but for the most part, it is antiquated. The bare minimum that should be used, imo, is the digifant 1 system off a corrado g-60. Chips can be made for these from SNS tuning (http://www.snstuning.com
). Achieving over 200 wheel horsepower is very doable, and reliability is far superior to an eic and cis setup.
As for stand-alone systems, there are numerous aftermarket systems that can be used. This ranges from the cost efficient SDS (www.sdsefi.com
) and Holley systems (http://www.holley.com
), to the more upscale tec 2, Autronic, or Halteck. What one needs to decide is a) can I install this b) can I tune this c) what options do I need. By answering these questions, you will see what additional parts you may need to purchase, if you need a laptop, and what options would you like to have (such as data logging). SDS has been a staple of 16v turbo cars because it needs no laptop, is very easy to install, and tuning is simple. Basically, your best option for a stand alone system is getting something that will suite your needs, and can be tuned in by yourself, or who ever is tuning it. Don't expect a local tuning shop that jets carbs for a living to master an efi system- so go w/ what the tuner is most familiar w/. Like any programmable EFI, it’s only as good as its programmer!
Now for the nitty-gritty parts list and how to- Keep in mind, you will need new gaskets for manifolds, etc. Victor Renz sells complete gasket kits.
#1- grab an ABA code block. To use this block, you will need the following from the 2.0L 16v block- the intermediate shaft and intermediate shaft pulley, the crank timing pulley, the oil pump and drive gear, the oil pump block off plate (the 1.8's don’t fit tightly, I know 1st hand). Since you are using this block w/ a 16v head, an abf code motor timing belt will be needed (hence why you need the wider crank timing pulley and intermediate shaft pulley). You can get the OEM vw belt from TT, or Kent makes a cheaper cost version. Concerning pistons- it has been my experience that I do not touch valves. Some people notch their pistons; I have yet to interfere w/ them.
#2 a 16v head and intake manifold. What head you use doesn’t matter. Same thing for the intake manifold. Whatever manifold is easier for you to run intercooler piping is best to use. Also, since you need to mount efi injectors go to the dealer and get 4 new injector cups for the g-60 head. They cost like 10 dollars. These will screw into the 16v head.
#3 A fuel injection system- whatever you decide to use. Keep in mind, you need injectors, a fuel pressure regulator, a fuel filter, miscellaneous fittings and fuel line- all variable upon what system you choose. This will also decide if you use a distributor or coil packs.
#4 A throttle body. If you’re getting a aftermarket fuel system that needs a tps switch, grab an automatic throttle body from a g-60 or a passat 16v. Secure the throttle cable like you would on a n/a car.
#5 A turbo. This can range. You can get a nice sized t-3 from a ford/merkur or an 85/86 Nissan 300z. This turbo will pull toward 6k no problem. The Saab turbo works well too, but they spool really quickly- as a result more responsive down low, but suck for top end. If you can, buy a new turbo. There are various options you can go w/ new. It is my purpose to just list some options for budget minded people. If you want to buy a new turbo, and have no clue, than just ask for ideals. Someone should be able to help out.
#6 a waste gate setup. Here you can vary. For ease of installation an internal waste gate is recommended. However, it is more efficient to run an external waste gate. Also, the waste gate housing off a ford turbo is recommended. It has two bolts that hold the down pipe to it. There it has a “cup” shape to it (think of vw’s “toilet bowl” manifold). This cup allows the down pipe to rock. To rigid a down pipe will cause it to crack. By using this, you effectively do away w/ the need of a flex section.
#7 a manifold. You can buy a weld ell style one from vortex members, or one through ATP.
#8 oil lines. Make a trip to the local hardware store, or order from atp. You need to tap your existing oil pan, or buy one done for you.
Time to bolt it up!
#9 buy the OEM ABA head gasket. This will work w/ the 16v head. Another member has figured out the CC of everything and came out to 8.1-1 compression ratio using this gasket, aba block/16v head. The exact c/r has been debated, but it is believed to be no more than 8.5-1 and no less than 8-1. You may have to knock 1 dial pin off the ABA block using a punch and hammer. You will see what I mean. Also, if you can afford it, I recommend a set of head studs- such as ARP’s. Order a set for the 16v.
#10 now that your motor is assembled, add your manifolds. Put the turbo on the manifold while outside the car. It will drop into the car no problem! As for where to get oil supply from- use the side of the head (distributor side).
#11 Plugs- a set of NGK BCP7ES plugs will do. They are a colder plug than OEM. Also, if you can afford it, grab a nice set of wires Magnacore or similar.
#12 An intercooler. You can go junkyard way, or buy new. I recommend a starion/conquest intercooler. This intercooler will fit in front of the radiator.
#13 Intercooler plumbing. This is tricky. Get an assortment of mandrel bends. I buy from http://www.stahlheaders.com
As for silicone connectors- rape them off of cars in the junkyard (1st gen dsms, as well as saabs are good candidates), or go to a local diesel truck stop. At the truck stop, you can get 2 ¼ inch silicone hose for $15 a foot. Then you can cut your connectors to fit. It is best to mount your intercooler first, and work from the turbo to the intercooler, then to the throttle body.
#14 a blow off valve. Budget wise, a bov from a 1st gen dsm is the best way to go. You can find them for under $20 at a junkyard. If you can, get the mounting tube too so u can cut the OEM flange off and weld it onto your new pipe. If you want, you can buy new.
#15 a boost controller. Ideally, you can make one for fewer than 20 dollars in parts. Or look around for a used brand name one. It is best to set boost as low as you can at first, and then work you way up.
#16 an Exhaust system. You will have to fabricate your own down pipe the majority of the time. Some companies offer 2-½ cat back systems- none offer this for a1 cars, so you’re making your own. 2 ½ will fit over the rear axle of a a1, three-inch will if you notch the axle beam or of the gas tank is gone and your running a fuel cell. Try to run ATLEAST 2 ½ the entire way back. No backpressure is good.
Here is all the parts you need. Assembled, you should have a wicked motor. If you go stand-alone keep the boost LOW until you can tune the car on a dyno w/ a wide band o2 sensor. If you go g-60 injection method, SNS will be able to tell you more specifically than I can. When you go to tune on the dyno, shoot for a 12-1 air fuel reading.
Also recommended are gauges! A Boost gauge, EGT gauge, an A/F gauge, and a OIL pressure gauge. I recommend Greddy’s egt gauge over VDO or auto meter. It seems more accurate. You want to mount the egt probe as close as you can to the number one cylinder. The egt gauge is more useful than the A/f gauge.
Keep in mind; the added horsepower is going to bring hell upon your transmission. So either stock up on trannys, or bite the bullet and get a limited slip differential. Plus, you will need a better clutch setup. Look at Kennedy engineering for a clutch disk and pressure plate combo.
Have fun with it-
Frequently asked questions about this setup
By crank pulley, do you mean the Serpentine pulley on the crank, or the timing belt GEAR????
by crank pulley, I mean the "ribbed" timing belt pulley that is held on w/ a 19mm 12-point bolt. Sometimes it is easier to just swap it over w/ the accessory pulleys (held onto the crank timing pulley by 6mm allen head bolts) attached, since if you are running magnets for timing, you would mount them on the back of the accessory pulley for the haul sender to see it- as in the sds 4e setup.
If your going SDS em4f route, you don’t need the distributor. Can you just put a plate on the head and get rid of the 16v distributor??
when running coil packs, you can block off the old distributor hole. I've heard of people using freeze plugs, or just leaving the non-functional distributor in the spot.
If I am NOT going to use a distributor anyways, can I keep the 8v oil pump and 8v int. shaft in there alone?
Yes and NO.
yes if you keep the 8v distributor on the motor, but non-functional.
No if you remove the distributor.
1st off, you must use the 16v intermediate shaft pulley. It is wider (don’t think I mentioned that in the above post)
If you keep the 8v intermediate shaft/oil pump, then you will need to keep the 8v distributor (albeit non-functional). That defeats the purpose of removing the distributor. You can't delete the distributor and drive the 8v oil pump. The aba's oil pump shaft has a tang on it that slides into the distributor-and this is where the gear is that drives the oil pump. So when you remove the 8v distributor from the motor, you need a oil pump gear. The 16v oil pump gear won’t interchange. There is a grooved shaft on the 16v oil pump that slips on to a gear that drives the pump from the intermediate shaft.
Will coolant hoses still line up?
Yes. You’re not changing the flow of the coolant system at all. Everything will line up like a 16v would.
Will throttle cable still work, or will fabing need to be done?
My regular cabriolet throttle cable worked. Just as long as you have the "stop" in place so the cable don’t move when the butterfly on the throttle moves you'll be ok. Think of it as a bike brake cable. You have your hand lever, and the brakes. If you don’t solidly mount the cable before the brake setup, your brakes won’t work.